Thermosyphone solar water heater

A solar water heater is a device that uses sunlight (rather than the heat of the sun) to heat water. It enables substantial energy savings, as the sun shining on 1m² of roof replaces 100 l of heating oil or 100 m³ of natural gas (approximately 1 000 kWh) a year. Generally speaking, it is possible to heat 50 to 70 % of the water used in the kitchen and the bathroom in this way.

Supplying a washing machine or dishwasher with this hot water also cuts out the electricity used by these appliances to heat the water and shortens the washing cycles.

Split system

The design of the vacuum tube is similar to the design of a glass thermos flask. A copper heating element is embedded in each tube with boiling and evaporating liquid soldered inside its plane. The solar energy absorbed by the three-layer coating of the vacuum tube is converted into thermal energy and transferred to the copper heating element. The vacuum tube together with the copper heating element (hereinafter referred to as the "heat pipe") is connected to a condenser located in the heat exchanger of the collector absorber.

Under the influence of heat, the liquid in the heat pipe boils and evaporates into the upper part, where it transfers thermal energy to the coolant of the main circuit of the water tank.

Heating of the heating medium of the heating circuit occurs in the second heat exchanger located in the upper part of the water tank due to heat transfer from the water in the tank heated by the heat exchanger of the main circuit. The condensate of the liquid in the heat pipe after the heat transfer is released down and evaporates again. This process is cyclical.

The receiver of the solar collector is made of copper with thermal insulation. Heat transfer occurs through the copper "sleeve" of the receiver, so that the heating circuit is separated from the tubes.


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